Most temperate bamboo won't do well indoors, but below is a list of species that can grow and thrive in the right conditions. Make sure you have enough light, water precisely, and use something like Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub to get rid of bugs. This is the only time I recommend the use of the chemicals with bamboo.
Overview: There are several types of bamboo that can be grown indoors, but none of them are among the easiest indoor plants to care for, as you might expect from some mainstays like rubber plants, corn plants, golden pothos, etc. However, with some TLC, diligence, and knowledge you can grow bamboo inside very well.
Humidity: Bamboo will prefer high humidity. The low humidity of most indoor environments greatly contributes to infestation of pests and/or disease. It is recommended to mist the plants daily and/or set up rock trays below the bamboo that will evaporate water.
Watering: Watering can be a tricky thing and usually is required to be precise. Too much water can damage roots and invite pests. Too little can damage or kill the plant. Watering should be done regularly, whenever the top of the soil is dry and before the plant shows signs of drying out. Excess water should be collected in a tray and removed if excessive (not evaporating in 2-3 days). This will take some trial and error as each plant and container is unique and will require different amounts. Most plants will need to be watered 1-3 times per week.
Pests/Disease: In an indoor environment it is likely that pests or disease may develop. Common pests such as aphids, fungus gnats, scale, mites, whitefly, etc. should be promptly identified and a suitable elimination strategy started. We've tried organic and natural methods but have found them ineffective. A product with imidacloprid such as Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub is what we currently use. This is the only time I recommend using synthetic chemicals on bamboo.
Bambusa multiplex 'Alphonse Karr'
Bambusa multiplex 'Silverstripe'
Hibanobambusa tanquilis 'Shiroshima'
Phyllostachys aurea 'Koi'
Pseudosasa japonica 'Tsutsumiana'